Some of these terms you may have already figured out from the pictures and stories on this site, but I thought this might be helpful in helping you further understand Egyptian culture...

Tamaya - known as felafel in other parts of the middle east, this is a ball of bulgur, beans, and seasonings mashed together, fried, and sold on pita bread for 50 piastres (about 10 cents).   Ful - fava beans (the national food of Egypt) mashed and seasoned, often eaten for breakfast, and sold in sandwich form on the street for 50 piastres (about 10 cents).
Kafta - a common Middle Eastern food, consisting of seasoned ground meat, wrapped around a skewer and grilled. Aysh Baladi - literally meaning "government bread," this is the pita bread that is served with almost every meal and sold everywhere for only 5 piasters (about 1 penny) per pita.
Kushari - a cheap Egyptian food consisting of spaghetti, macaroni, rice, lentils, corn, fried onions, and a spicy tomato sauce -
enough carbs to make Dr. Atkins cry!
Molokheya - a green soup made of finely chopped leaves that has a very slimy texture (something not all foreigners appreciate) and is often served over rice or with bread.  I like molokheya, which is good because it is served most Mondays when I work at the seminary!
Khan el Khalili - an area in old (medieval) Cairo where vendors sell clothes, souvenirs, jewelry, spices, and just about anything you can imagine, mainly to tourists.
Souk - the market where people go to buy and sell fruit, vegetables, animals, and various other food products.
Ramses College for Girls - the school where I work and live, located in Ghamra, at the edge of Abbasiya.
Evangelical Theological Seminary of Cairo - the seminary, closely associated with the Presbyterian church (USA), where I work in the fundraising office.
Galibaya - an article of clothing, similar to a choir robe, worn by men, women, and children in Egypt, particularly in rural areas.
Sheesha - a popular leisure activity in Cairo that takes place at bars and cafes, where people (usually only men) go to smoke tobacco.
Traffic - you may think you already know this word, but until you've visited Cairo, you won't be able to imagine the way people drive here; the rules are:  never stop for any reason (pedestrians included) and honk constantly.
Sabeel - a public drinking fountain, usually consisting of clay water jugs in a rack or metal mug chained to a large metal water cooler, available to all people, although I would never consider actually drinking from one in Cairo! Women's Car - the first 1 or 2 cars of the metro that are reserved exclusively for women (el hamdullah); this makes riding a packed metro much more tolerable for those of us who don't enjoy close contact with Egyptian men.
el hamdullah - "thanks to God"
This phrase is used all the time in just about any situation and is even used to answer the question, "how are you?".
shoukran - "thank you"
In addition to being used to thank people, when spoken to a persistent vendor, this also means "no thank you, go away".
insha'allah - "God willing"
Everything in this culture is "insha'allah."
la - "no"
Useful for persistent vendors and second primary students alike
kidda - elusive Arabic phrase that may or may not mean any of the following:  'good job," "turn left," "turn right," "this," "that," "it," "okay," or really anything you want it to mean.  yanni - a filler word that literally means, "it means," but used as a filler word the way people in the US use "like," "um," "you know," etc.
malish - this can mean "I'm sorry," but can also mean, "It's no big deal," "Don't worry about it," or "Too bad."   mumkin - "possible" or "maybe"
I had to teach Josh this one because it creeps into my English so often!
aywa - "yes" bi kem - "how much"
An important question to ask in a culture where nothing ever has a set price